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From the Editors at Merriam-Webster. Dictionary Entries near cryptology cryptohalite Cryptolaemus cryptolite cryptology cryptomedusoid cryptomelane cryptomere.
Statistics for cryptology Look-up Popularity. Time Traveler for cryptology The first known use of cryptology was in See more words from the same year.
More from Merriam-Webster on cryptology Britannica. Comments on cryptology What made you want to look up cryptology?
Get Word of the Day daily email! Need even more definitions? Ghost Word The story of an imaginary word that managed to sneak past our editors and enter the dictionary.
Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Such cryptosystems are sometimes called cryptographic protocols.
More complex cryptosystems include electronic cash  systems, signcryption systems, etc. Some more 'theoretical' cryptosystems include interactive proof systems ,  like zero-knowledge proofs ,  systems for secret sharing ,   etc.
Until recently [ timeframe? The general idea of provable security is to give arguments about the computational difficulty needed to compromise some security aspect of the cryptosystem i.
The study of how best to implement and integrate cryptography in software applications is itself a distinct field see Cryptographic engineering and Security engineering.
Cryptography has long been of interest to intelligence gathering and law enforcement agencies. Because of its facilitation of privacy , and the diminution of privacy attendant on its prohibition, cryptography is also of considerable interest to civil rights supporters.
Accordingly, there has been a history of controversial legal issues surrounding cryptography, especially since the advent of inexpensive computers has made widespread access to high quality cryptography possible.
In some countries, even the domestic use of cryptography is, or has been, restricted. Until , France significantly restricted the use of cryptography domestically, though it has since relaxed many of these rules.
In China and Iran , a license is still required to use cryptography. In the United States , cryptography is legal for domestic use, but there has been much conflict over legal issues related to cryptography.
Probably because of the importance of cryptanalysis in World War II and an expectation that cryptography would continue to be important for national security, many Western governments have, at some point, strictly regulated export of cryptography.
After World War II, it was illegal in the US to sell or distribute encryption technology overseas; in fact, encryption was designated as auxiliary military equipment and put on the United States Munitions List.
However, as the Internet grew and computers became more widely available, high-quality encryption techniques became well known around the globe.
In the s, there were several challenges to US export regulation of cryptography. Bernstein , then a graduate student at UC Berkeley , brought a lawsuit against the US government challenging some aspects of the restrictions based on free speech grounds.
The case Bernstein v. United States ultimately resulted in a decision that printed source code for cryptographic algorithms and systems was protected as free speech by the United States Constitution.
In , thirty-nine countries signed the Wassenaar Arrangement , an arms control treaty that deals with the export of arms and "dual-use" technologies such as cryptography.
The treaty stipulated that the use of cryptography with short key-lengths bit for symmetric encryption, bit for RSA would no longer be export-controlled.
Since this relaxation in US export restrictions, and because most personal computers connected to the Internet include US-sourced web browsers such as Firefox or Internet Explorer , almost every Internet user worldwide has potential access to quality cryptography via their browsers e.
Many Internet users don't realize that their basic application software contains such extensive cryptosystems. These browsers and email programs are so ubiquitous that even governments whose intent is to regulate civilian use of cryptography generally don't find it practical to do much to control distribution or use of cryptography of this quality, so even when such laws are in force, actual enforcement is often effectively impossible.
Another contentious issue connected to cryptography in the United States is the influence of the National Security Agency on cipher development and policy.
The technique became publicly known only when Biham and Shamir re-discovered and announced it some years later. The entire affair illustrates the difficulty of determining what resources and knowledge an attacker might actually have.
Another instance of the NSA's involvement was the Clipper chip affair, an encryption microchip intended to be part of the Capstone cryptography-control initiative.
Clipper was widely criticized by cryptographers for two reasons. The cipher algorithm called Skipjack was then classified declassified in , long after the Clipper initiative lapsed.
The classified cipher caused concerns that the NSA had deliberately made the cipher weak in order to assist its intelligence efforts.
The whole initiative was also criticized based on its violation of Kerckhoffs's Principle , as the scheme included a special escrow key held by the government for use by law enforcement, for example in wiretaps.
Cryptography is central to digital rights management DRM , a group of techniques for technologically controlling use of copyrighted material, being widely implemented and deployed at the behest of some copyright holders.
President Bill Clinton signed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA , which criminalized all production, dissemination, and use of certain cryptanalytic techniques and technology now known or later discovered ; specifically, those that could be used to circumvent DRM technological schemes.
Similar statutes have since been enacted in several countries and regions, including the implementation in the EU Copyright Directive.
Similar restrictions are called for by treaties signed by World Intellectual Property Organization member-states.
Niels Ferguson , a well-respected cryptography researcher, has publicly stated that he will not release some of his research into an Intel security design for fear of prosecution under the DMCA.
Dmitry Sklyarov was arrested during a visit to the US from Russia, and jailed for five months pending trial for alleged violations of the DMCA arising from work he had done in Russia, where the work was legal.
In both cases, the MPAA sent out numerous DMCA takedown notices, and there was a massive Internet backlash  triggered by the perceived impact of such notices on fair use and free speech.
In the United Kingdom, the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act gives UK police the powers to force suspects to decrypt files or hand over passwords that protect encryption keys.
Failure to comply is an offense in its own right, punishable on conviction by a two-year jail sentence or up to five years in cases involving national security.
In the United States, the federal criminal case of United States v. Fricosu addressed whether a search warrant can compel a person to reveal an encryption passphrase or password.
The FBI—Apple encryption dispute concerns the ability of courts in the United States to compel manufacturers' assistance in unlocking cell phones whose contents are cryptographically protected.
As a potential counter-measure to forced disclosure some cryptographic software supports plausible deniability , where the encrypted data is indistinguishable from unused random data for example such as that of a drive which has been securely wiped.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Aya Kamiki album, see Secret Code. For the David S. Ware album, see Cryptology album. Cryptography laws in different nations.
Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science. Introduction to Modern Cryptography. Handbook of Applied Cryptography. Archived from the original on 7 March An introduction to Information Communication and Cryptography.
Retrieved 26 March How online surveillance cracked our trust in the web". Archived from the original on An emerging technology in network security".
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary 11th ed. Internet Engineering Task Force. A History of US: War, Peace and all that Jazz. Stealing Secrets, Telling Lies: A New Kind of Science.
Computer Security Resource Center. National Institute of Standards and Technology. National Credit Union Administration. Applied Cryptography 2nd ed.
Archived 28 February at the Wayback Machine. Communications of the ACM. Association for Computing Machinery. Archived 16 November at the Wayback Machine.
The New York Times. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illinois Press. Selected Areas in Cryptography. Archived from the original on 26 July Electronic Privacy Information Center.
United States Copyright Office. CrypTool is the most widespread e-learning program about cryptography and cryptanalysis, open source.
Popular account of Sarah's award-winning project on public-key cryptography, co-written with her father. Alvin's Secret Code by Clifford B. Hicks children's novel that introduces some basic cryptography and cryptanalysis.
Al-Kadi, "The Origins of Cryptology: Slides, online cryptography lectures and other information are available on the companion web site.
Very accessible introduction to practical cryptography for non-mathematicians. Introduction to Modern Cryptography by Phillip Rogaway and Mihir Bellare , a mathematical introduction to theoretical cryptography including reduction-based security proofs.
Stallings, William March Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice 6th ed. However, the opposite is true when we invert it.
If we are given P, a, and N and are required to find b so that the equation is valid, then we face a tremendous level of difficulty.
This problem forms the basis for a number of public key infrastructure algorithms, such as Diffie-Hellman and EIGamal.
This problem has been studied for many years and cryptography based on it has withstood many forms of attacks. The Integer Factorization Problem: This is simple in concept.
Say that one takes two prime numbers, P2 and P1, which are both "large" a relative term, the definition of which continues to move forward as computing power increases.
We then multiply these two primes to produce the product, N. The difficulty arises when, being given N, we try and find the original P1 and P2. The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman public key infrastructure encryption protocol is one of many based on this problem.
To simplify matters to a great degree, the N product is the public key and the P1 and P2 numbers are, together, the private key. This problem is one of the most fundamental of all mathematical concepts.
It has been studied intensely for the past 20 years and the consensus seems to be that there is some unproven or undiscovered law of mathematics that forbids any shortcuts.
That said, the mere fact that it is being studied intensely leads many others to worry that, somehow, a breakthrough may be discovered.
This is a new cryptographic protocol based upon a reasonably well-known mathematical problem. The properties of elliptic curves have been well known for centuries, but it is only recently that their application to the field of cryptography has been undertaken.
First, imagine a huge piece of paper on which is printed a series of vertical and horizontal lines. Each line represents an integer with the vertical lines forming x class components and horizontal lines forming the y class components.
The intersection of a horizontal and vertical line gives a set of coordinates x,y. In the highly simplified example below, we have an elliptic curve that is defined by the equation:.
For the above, given a definable operator, we can determine any third point on the curve given any two other points. This definable operator forms a "group" of finite length.
To add two points on an elliptic curve, we first need to understand that any straight line that passes through this curve intersects it at precisely three points.
Now, say we define two of these points as u and v: We can then draw a vertical line through w to find the final intersecting point at x. This rule works, when we define another imaginary point, the Origin, or O, which exists at theoretically extreme points on the curve.
As strange as this problem may seem, it does permit for an effective encryption system, but it does have its detractors. On the positive side, the problem appears to be quite intractable, requiring a shorter key length thus allowing for quicker processing time for equivalent security levels as compared to the Integer Factorization Problem and the Discrete Logarithm Problem.
On the negative side, critics contend that this problem, since it has only recently begun to be implemented in cryptography, has not had the intense scrutiny of many years that is required to give it a sufficient level of trust as being secure.
This leads us to more general problem of cryptology than of the intractability of the various mathematical concepts, which is that the more time, effort, and resources that can be devoted to studying a problem, then the greater the possibility that a solution, or at least a weakness, will be found.
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