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An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by Napoleon in the early 19th century who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent.

This conquest propelled the unification of Italy some decades after and pushed the Italian language into a lingua franca used not only among clerks, nobility, and functionaries in the Italian courts but also by the bourgeoisie.

Italian literature's first modern novel, I promessi sposi The Betrothed by Alessandro Manzoni , further defined the standard by "rinsing" his Milanese "in the waters of the Arno " Florence 's river , as he states in the preface to his edition.

After unification, a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home languages ciao is derived from the Venetian word s-cia[v]o "slave" , panettone comes from the Lombard word panetton , etc.

Italian is a Romance language , and is therefore a descendant of Vulgar Latin the spoken form of non-classical Latin. Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants.

As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary.

One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin comparing phonology , inflection , discourse , syntax , vocabulary , and intonation estimated that among the languages analyzed the distance between Italian and Latin is only higher than that between Sardinian and Latin.

Italian is an official language of Italy and San Marino and is spoken fluently by the majority of the countries' populations.

Italian is the third most spoken language in Switzerland after German and French , and its use has modestly declined since the s. Due to heavy Italian influence during the Italian colonial period , Italian is still understood by some in former colonies.

Although over 17 million Americans are of Italian descent , only a little over one million people in the United States speak Italian at home.

Italian immigrants to South America have also brought a presence of the language to that continent. Italian is the second most spoken language in Argentina [45] after the official language of Spanish, with over 1 million mainly of the older generation speaking it at home, and Italian has also influenced the dialect of Spanish spoken in Argentina and Uruguay , mostly in phonology, known as Rioplatense Spanish.

Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language. Italian is the fourth [17] [70] most frequently taught foreign language in the world.

For example, the free website and application Duolingo has According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs , every year there are more than , foreign students who study the Italian language; they are distributed among the 90 Institutes of Italian Culture that are located around the world, in the Italian schools located abroad, or in the Italian lecturer sections belonging to foreign schools where Italian is taught as a language of culture.

From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Venezuela, where they formed a physical and cultural presence.

In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional languages of Italy were used, and some continue to use this regional language. Examples are Rio Grande do Sul , Brazil , where Talian is used, and the town of Chipilo near Puebla, Mexico ; each continues to use a derived form of Venetian dating back to the nineteenth century.

Rioplatense Spanish , and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian languages because Argentina has had a continuous large influx of Italian settlers since the second half of the nineteenth century: Starting in late medieval times in much of Europe and the Mediterranean, Latin was replaced as the primary commercial language by Italian language variants especially Tuscan and Venetian.

These variants were consolidated during the Renaissance with the strength of Italy and the rise of humanism and the arts.

During that period, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. It was the norm for all educated gentlemen to make the Grand Tour , visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art.

It thus became expected to learn at least some Italian. In England, while the classical languages Latin and Greek were the first to be learned, Italian became the second most common modern language after French, a position it held until the late eighteenth century when it tended to be replaced by German.

John Milton , for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. Within the Catholic church , Italian is known by a large part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy and is used in substitution for Latin in some official documents.

Italian loanwords continue to be used in most languages in matters of art and music especially classical music including opera , in the design and fashion industries, in some sports like football [74] and especially, in culinary terms.

In Italy, almost all the other languages spoken as the vernacular — other than standard Italian and some languages spoken among immigrant communities — are often imprecisely called " Italian dialects ", [75] even though they are quite different, with some belonging to different linguistic branches.

The only exceptions to this are twelve groups considered " historical language minorities ", which are officially recognized as distinct minority languages by the law.

On the other hand, Corsican a language spoken on the French island of Corsica is closely related to Tuscan , from which Standard Italian derives and evolved.

The differences in the evolution of Latin in the different regions of Italy can be attributed to the presence of three other types of languages: The most prevalent were substrata the language of the original inhabitants , as the Italian dialects were most likely simply Latin as spoken by native cultural groups.

Superstrata and adstrata were both less important. Foreign conquerors of Italy that dominated different regions at different times left behind little to no influence on the dialects.

Foreign cultures with which Italy engaged in peaceful relations with, such as trade, had no significant influence either.

Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: There is no definitive date when the various Italian variants of Latin—including varieties that contributed to modern Standard Italian—began to be distinct enough from Latin to be considered separate languages.

One criterion for determining that two language variants are to be considered separate languages rather than variants of a single language is that they have evolved so that they are no longer mutually intelligible ; this diagnostic is effective if mutual intelligibility is minimal or absent e.

Nevertheless, on the basis of accumulated differences in morphology, syntax, phonology, and to some extent lexicon, it is not difficult to identify that for the Romance varieties of Italy, the first extant written evidence of languages that can no longer be considered Latin comes from the ninth and tenth centuries C.

These written sources demonstrate certain vernacular characteristics and sometimes explicitly mention the use of the vernacular in Italy. Full literary manifestations of the vernacular began to surface around the 13th century in the form of various religious texts and poetry.

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the use of Standard Italian became increasingly widespread and was mirrored by a decline in the use of the dialects.

An increase in literacy was one of the main driving factors one can assume that only literates were capable of learning Standard Italian, whereas those who were illiterate had access only to their native dialect.

Tullio De Mauro , an Italian linguist, has asserted that in only 2. The ability to speak Italian did not necessarily mean it was in everyday use, and most people In addition, other factors such as mass emigration, industrialization, and urbanization, and internal migrations after World War II contributed to the proliferation of Standard Italian.

The Italians who emigrated during the Italian diaspora beginning in were often of the uneducated lower class, and thus the emigration had the effect of increasing the percentage of literates, who often knew and understood the importance of Standard Italian, back home in Italy.

A large percentage of those who had emigrated also eventually returned to Italy, often more educated than when they had left. The Italian dialects have declined in the modern era, as Italy unified under Standard Italian and continues to do so aided by mass media, from newspapers to radio to television.

Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian phonology is conservative, preserving many words nearly unchanged from Vulgar Latin.

The conservativeness of Italian phonology is partly explained by its origin. Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of Florence in the region of Tuscany , and has changed little in the last years or so.

Furthermore, the Tuscan dialect is the most conservative of all Italian dialects , radically different from the Gallo-Italian languages less than miles to the north across the La Spezia—Rimini Line.

The following are some of the conservative phonological features of Italian, as compared with the common Western Romance languages French, Spanish, Portuguese , Galician , Catalan.

Some of these features are also present in Romanian. Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has a large number of inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.

The La Spezia—Rimini Line , the most important isogloss in the entire Romance-language area, passes only about 20 miles to the north of Florence.

Italian phonotactics do not usually permit verbs and polysyllabic nouns to end with consonants, excepting poetry and song, so foreign words may receive extra terminal vowel sounds.

The Italian alphabet is typically considered to consist of 21 letters. The letters j, k, w, x, y are traditionally excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as jeans , whisky , taxi , xenofobo , xilofono.

Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity. Geminate plosives and affricates are realized as lengthened closures.

Italian grammar is typical of the grammar of Romance languages in general. Cases exist for personal pronouns nominative , oblique , accusative , dative , but not for nouns.

There are two basic classes of nouns in Italian, referred to as genders , masculine and feminine. Gender may be natural ragazzo 'boy', ragazza 'girl' or simply grammatical with no possible reference to biological gender masculine costo 'cost', feminine costa 'coast'.

Masculine nouns typically end in -o ragazzo 'boy' , with plural marked by -i ragazzi 'boys' , and feminine nouns typically end in -a , with plural marked by -e ragazza 'girl', ragazze 'girls.

For a group composed of boys and girls, ragazzi is the plural, suggesting that -i is a general plural.

A third category of nouns is umarked for gender, ending in -e in the singular and -i in the plural: These nouns often, but not always, denote inanimates.

There are a number of nouns that have a masculine singular and a feminine plural, most commonly of the pattern m.

An instance of neuter gender also exists in pronouns of the third person singular. Nouns, adjectives, and articles inflect for gender and number singular and plural.

Like in English, common nouns are capitalized when occurring at the beginning of a sentence. Unlike English, nouns referring to languages e. Italian , speakers of languages, or inhabitants of an area e.

Italians are not capitalized. There are three types of adjectives: Descriptive adjectives are the most common, and their endings change to match the number and gender of the noun they modify.

Invariable adjectives are adjectives whose endings do not change. The form changing adjectives "buono good , bello beautiful , grande big , and santo saint " change in form when placed before different types of nouns.

Italian has three degrees for comparison of adjectives: The order of words in the phrase is relatively free compared to most European languages.

Word order often has a lesser grammatical function in Italian than in English. Adjectives are sometimes placed before their noun and sometimes after.

Subject nouns generally come before the verb. Italian is a null-subject language , so that nominative pronouns are usually absent, with subject indicated by verbal inflections e.

Noun objects normally come after the verb, as do pronoun objects after imperative verbs, infinitives and gerunds, but otherwise pronoun objects come before the verb.

There are both indefinite and definite articles in Italian. There are four indefinite articles, selected by the gender of the noun they modify and by the phonological structure of the word that immediately follows the article.

The noun zio 'uncle' selects masculine singular, thus uno zio 'an uncle' or uno zio anziano 'an old uncle,' but un mio zio 'an uncle of mine'.

The feminine singular indefinite articles are una , used before any consonant sound, and its abbreviated form, written un', used before vowels: There are seven forms for definite articles, both singular and plural.

There are numerous contractions of prepositions with subsequent articles. There are numerous productive suffixes for diminutive , augmentative , pejorative, attenuating etc.

There are 27 pronouns, grouped in clitic and tonic pronouns. Personal pronouns are separated into three groups: Second person subject pronouns have both a polite and a familiar form.

These two different types of address are very important in Italian social distinctions. All object pronouns have two forms: Unstressed object pronouns are much more frequently used, and come before the verb Lo vedo.

Stressed object pronouns come after the verb, and are used when emphasis is required, for contrast, or to avoid ambiguity Vedo lui, ma non lei. Aside from personal pronouns, Italian also has demonstrative, interrogative, possessive, and relative pronouns.

There are two types of demonstrative pronouns: Demonstratives in Italian are repeated before each noun, unlike in English.

There are three regular sets of verbal conjugations , and various verbs are irregularly conjugated. Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a past participle.

This rule is not absolute, and some exceptions do exist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Italiano disambiguation.

This article is about the standardized Italian language. For other Italian languages originating or spoken in Italy, see Languages of Italy.

Former official language, now secondary. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Dante Alighieri top and Petrarch bottom were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages.

Geographical distribution of Italian speakers. Italy portal Switzerland portal Vatican City portal Language portal.

In the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about In , about 34,, passenger cars cars per 1, people and 4,, goods vehicles circulated on the national road network.

In there were approximately 30 main airports, including the two hubs of Malpensa International in Milan and Leonardo da Vinci International in Rome, and 43 major seaports, including the seaport of Genoa , the country's largest and second largest in the Mediterranean Sea.

In Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about , units and a merchant fleet of ships. Italy does not invest enough to maintain its drinking water supply.

The Galli Law, passed in , aimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues.

Despite these reforms, investment levels have declined and remain far from sufficient. Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences.

During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci — , Michelangelo — and Leon Battista Alberti —72 made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering.

Galileo Galilei — , a physicist, mathematician and astronomer, played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.

His achievements include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model.

Other astronomers suchs as Giovanni Domenico Cassini — and Giovanni Schiaparelli — made many important discoveries about the Solar System. Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world.

Physicist Enrico Fermi —54 , a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that developed the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the quantum theory and was one of the key figures in the creation of the nuclear weapon.

Other prominent physicists include: Amedeo Avogadro most noted for his contributions to molecular theory , in particular the Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constant , Evangelista Torricelli inventor of barometer , Alessandro Volta inventor of electric battery , Guglielmo Marconi inventor of radio , Galileo Ferraris and Antonio Pacinotti , pioneers of the induction motor, Alessandro Cruto , pioneer of light bulb and Innocenzo Manzetti , eclectic pioneer of auto and robotics, Ettore Majorana who discovered the Majorana fermions , Carlo Rubbia Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

Antonio Meucci is known for developing a voice-communication device which is often credited as the first telephone. In biology, Francesco Redi has been the first to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies and he described parasites in details and Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic anatomy , Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted important research in bodily functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory, Camillo Golgi , whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex , paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine , Rita Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

In chemistry, Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi- meson decay in Ennio de Giorgi , a Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in , solved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.

Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with a total of Italy's most-visited landmarks include e. At the end of , Italy had 60,, inhabitants.

However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Po Valley that accounts for almost a half of the national population and the metropolitan areas of Rome and Naples, while vast regions such as the Alps and Apennines highlands, the plateaus of Basilicata and the island of Sardinia are very sparsely populated.

The population of Italy almost doubled during the 20th century, but the pattern of growth was extremely uneven because of large-scale internal migration from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North, a phenomenon which happened as a consequence of the Italian economic miracle of the —s.

High fertility and birth rates persisted until the s, after which they start decline. The population rapidly aged. At the end of the s decade , one in five Italians was over 65 years old.

From the late 19th century until the s Italy was a country of mass emigration. Between and , the peak years of Italian diaspora , approximately , Italians emigrated each year.

In , Italy had about 5. The figures include more than half a million children born in Italy to foreign nationals—second generation immigrants, but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian citizenship; [] In , about , people acquired Italian citizenship [] , in Starting from the early s, until then a linguistically and culturally homogeneous society, Italy begun to attract substantial flows of foreign immigrants.

An equally important source of immigration is neighbouring North Africa in particular, Morocco , Egypt and Tunisia , with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring.

Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific notably China [] and the Philippines and Latin America have been recorded. The number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested in that there might have been half a million or more.

The distribution of immigrants is largely uneven in Italy: According to the first article of the framework law no. Standardisation was further expanded in the s and s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian.

Twelve historical minority languages are formally recognised by the framework law no. French in the Aosta Valley — although Franco-Provencal is more commonly spoken there; [] German in South Tyrol , and Ladin as well in some parts of the same province and in parts of the neighbouring Trentino ; and finally, Slovene in the province of Trieste , Gorizia and Udine.

Because of recent immigration influx, Italy has sizeable populations whose native language is not Italian, nor a regional language. According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics , Romanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic spoken by over , people; In , the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic was It is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope , who is also the Bishop of Rome , with which diplomatic relations can be maintained.

In , minority Christian faiths in Italy included an estimated 1. One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is Judaism , Jews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ.

Italy has for centuries welcomed Jews expelled from other countries, notably Spain. Soaring immigration in the last two decades has been accompanied by an increase in non-Christian faiths.

There are more than , followers of faiths originating in the Indian subcontinent with some 70, Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the country, [].

The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a regime known as Eight per thousand.

Donations are allowed to Christian, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu communities; however, Islam remains excluded, since no Muslim communities have yet signed a concordat with the Italian state.

Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen, [] and consists of five stages: Primary education lasts eight years. Students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts.

Secondary education lasts for five years and includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: In , the Italian secondary education was evaluated as slightly below the OECD average, with a strong and steady improvement in science and mathematics results since ; [] however, a wide gap exists between northern schools, which performed significantly better than the national average among the best in the world in some subjects , and schools in the South , that had much poorer results.

Tertiary education in Italy is divided between public universities , private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools , such as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.

The university system in Italy is generally regarded as poor for a world cultural powerhouse, with no universities ranked among the world best and only 20 among the top The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since The public part is the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale , which is organised under the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis.

Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for 9. Life expectancy in Italy is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 5th in the world for life expectancy.

For centuries divided by politics and geography until its eventual unification in , Italy's culture has been shaped by a multitude of regional customs and local centres of power and patronage.

During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a number of magnificent courts competed for attracting the best architects, artists and scholars, thus producing a great legacy of monuments, paintings, music and literature.

Despite the political and social isolation of these courts, Italy's contribution to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense.

The country has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora.

Furthermore, Italy has, overall, an estimated , monuments of any sort museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remains , [] and according to some estimates the nation is home to half the world's great art treasures.

Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by region, because of Italy's division into several regional states until This has created a highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs.

Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, [] such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome , the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the lateth to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism , a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture , and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.

Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the Colosseum , the Milan Cathedral and Florence cathedral , the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the building designs of Venice are found in Italy.

The Leaning Tower and the Duomo of Pisa. The Royal Palace of Caserta. Temple of Concordia in the Valley of the Temples , Agrigento.

Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of the world. British architect Inigo Jones , inspired by the designs of Italian buildings and cities, brought back the ideas of Italian Renaissance architecture to 17th-century England, being inspired by Andrea Palladio.

The history of Italian visual art is one of the most important parts of Western painting history. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting.

However, Roman painting does have important unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania , in Southern Italy.

Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons. Towards the middle of the 13th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto.

From Giotto on, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative.

They are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture. The Italian Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the midth centuries with a significant influence also out of the borders of modern Italy.

In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello , Fra Angelico , Masaccio , Piero della Francesca , Andrea Mantegna , Filippo Lippi , Giorgione , Tintoretto , Sandro Botticelli , Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo Buonarroti , Raphael , Giovanni Bellini , and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective , the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High Renaissance gave rise to a stylised art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterised art at the dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt.

The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco.

Subsequently, in the 18th century, Italian Rococo was mainly inspired by French Rococo, since France was the founding nation of that particular style, with artists such as Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto.

Italian Neoclassical sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova 's nudes, on the idealist aspect of the movement.

In the 20th century, with Futurism , primarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla , Italy rose again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and sculpture.

Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico , who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow.

Italian literature began after the founding of Rome in BC. Latin literature was, and still is, highly influential in the world, with numerous writers, poets, philosophers, and historians, such as Pliny the Elder , Pliny the Younger , Virgil , Horace , Propertius , Ovid and Livy.

The Romans were also famous for their oral tradition, poetry, drama and epigrams. Francis of Assisi was considered the first Italian poet by literary critics, with his religious song Canticle of the Sun.

Another Italian voice originated in Sicily. The most important of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentini , inventor of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch.

Guido Guinizelli is considered the founder of the Dolce Stil Novo , a school that added a philosophical dimension to traditional love poetry.

This new understanding of love, expressed in a smooth, pure style, influenced Guido Cavalcanti and the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri , who established the basis of the modern Italian language ; his greatest work, the Divine Comedy , is considered among the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages ; furthermore, the poet invented the difficult terza rima.

The two great writers of the 14th century, Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio , sought out and imitated the works of antiquity and cultivated their own artistic personalities.

Petrarch achieved fame through his collection of poems, Il Canzoniere. Petrarch's love poetry served as a model for centuries.

Equally influential was Boccaccio's The Decameron , one of the most popular collections of short stories ever written.

Italian Renaissance authors produced a number of important works. Another important work of the period, Ludovico Ariosto 's Orlando Furioso , continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo 's unfinished romance Orlando Innamorato , is perhaps the greatest chivalry poem ever written.

Baldassare Castiglione 's dialogue The Book of the Courtier describes the ideal of the perfect court gentleman and of spiritual beauty. The lyric poet Torquato Tasso in Jerusalem Delivered wrote a Christian epic, making use of the ottava rima , with attention to the Aristotelian canons of unity.

Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile , which have written The Facetious Nights of Straparola — and the Pentamerone respectively, printed some of the first known versions of fairy tales in Europe.

The Baroque period also produced the clear scientific prose of Galileo as well as Tommaso Campanella 's The City of the Sun , a description of a perfect society ruled by a philosopher-priest.

At the end of the 17th century, the Arcadians began a movement to restore simplicity and classical restraint to poetry, as in Metastasio 's heroic melodramas.

In the 18th century, playwright Carlo Goldoni created full written plays, many portraying the middle class of his day. The Romanticism coincided with some ideas of the Risorgimento , the patriotic movement that brought Italy political unity and freedom from foreign domination.

Italian writers embraced Romanticism in the early 19th century. The works by Alessandro Manzoni , the leading Italian Romantic, are a symbol of the Italian unification for their patriotic message and because of his efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language; his novel The Betrothed was the first Italian historical novel to glorify Christian values of justice and Providence, and it has been called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian language.

In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo played a major role in Italian literature; Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana were its main exponents.

In the same period, Emilio Salgari , writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction, published his Sandokan series.

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote Manifesto of Futurism , called for the use of language and metaphors that glorified the speed, dynamism, and violence of the machine age.

Italian theatre can be traced back to the Roman tradition. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus 's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca.

Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energising effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage.

As with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the Greek.

For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripides , and many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander.

During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatre , and it is still performed today.

Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling , acrobatics and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio.

Plays did not originate from written drama but from scenarios called lazzi , which were loose frameworks that provided the situations, complications, and outcome of the action, around which the actors would improvise.

The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and stock characters , each of which has a distinct costume , such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado.

The main categories of these characters include servants, old men, lovers, and captains. Carlo Goldoni , who wrote a few scenarios starting in , supersed the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of actual life and manners through the characters and their behaviours.

He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before. The Teatro di San Carlo in Naples is the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world, opening in , decades before both the Milan's La Scala and Venice's La Fenice theatres.

From folk music to classical , music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, [] [] and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony , concerto, and sonata , can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.

Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music.

While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world , [] and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti , Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene.

Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world.

Introduced in the early s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime.

Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. In the early s, the first star to emerge from the Italian hip hop scene was singer Jovanotti.

Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music , with Italo disco , known for its futuristic sound and prominent use of synthesisers and drum machines , being one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco.

By the latter half of the s, a subgenre of Eurodance known as Italo dance emerged. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders.

Producers such as Giorgio Moroder , who won three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes for his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic dance music.

The Italian film industry was born between and with three companies: Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples.

In a short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy.

After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the s.

The mids to the early s was the heyday of neorealist films , reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy. As the country grew wealthier in the s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres , such as sword-and-sandal followed as spaghetti westerns , were popular in the s and s.

Actresses such as Sophia Loren , Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos , produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide.

In recent years, the Italian scene has received only occasional international attention, with movies like Life Is Beautiful directed by Roberto Benigni , Il Postino: In the s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome's being dubbed " Hollywood on the Tiber ".

More than 3, productions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema classics to recent rewarded features such as Roman Holiday , Ben-Hur , Cleopatra , Romeo and Juliet , The English Patient , The Passion of the Christ , and Gangs of New York.

The most popular sport in Italy is, by far, football. Italy's top-flight club football league is named Serie A and ranks as the third best in Europe and is followed by millions of fans around the world.

Other popular team sports in Italy include volleyball , basketball and rugby. Italy's male and female national volleyball teams are often featured among the world's best.

The Italian national basketball team 's best results were gold at Eurobasket and EuroBasket , as well as silver at the Olympics in Lega Basket Serie A is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe.

Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby.

The men's volleyball team won three consecutive World Championships in , , and and earned the Olympic silver medal in , , and Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as well.

Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country. Alpine skiing is also a very widespread sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing destination, known for its ski resorts.

Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practised sport in the country. Italian professional tennis players won the Davis Cup in and the Fed Cup in , , and Motorsports are also extremely popular in Italy.

Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since , and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of wins.

Historically, Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games , taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of Italian sportsmen have won medals at the Summer Olympic Games , and another at the Winter Olympic Games , for a combined total of medals with golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in Olympic history for total medals.

The country hosted two Winter Olympics in and , and one Summer games in Starting in , the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours ' second oldest [].

The Azzurri , here players of , is the men's national football team. Italian fashion has a long tradition , and is regarded as one most important in the world.

Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia , is considered one of the most prestigious fashion magazines in the world.

Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design , industrial design and urban design.

The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass , and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design.

The city of Milan hosts Fiera Milano , Europe's largest design fair. The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC.

Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan , ancient Greek , ancient Roman , Byzantine , and Jewish.

The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta , fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients.

A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance on traditional products; Italy has the most traditional specialities protected under EU law.

Public holidays celebrated in Italy include religious, national and regional observances. The Saint Lucy's Day , which take place on 13 December, is very popular among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar to Santa Claus.

There are many festivals and festivities in Italy. The prestigious Venice International Film Festival , awarding the " Golden Lion " and held annually since , is the oldest film festival in the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Italy disambiguation.

For other uses, see Italia disambiguation. Show map of Europe. German is co-official in South Tyrol ; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley ; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste and the province of Gorizia ; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas; Sardinian is co-official in Sardinia.

The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc. Etruscan fresco in the Monterozzi necropolis , 5th century BC.

Matera , which dates from Palaeolithic, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD. Italy in the Middle Ages. Italy's "Fathers of the Fatherland" Giuseppe Mazzini , leader of the Italian revolutionary movement, and Giuseppe Garibaldi , celebrated as one of the greatest generals of modern times [72] and the " Hero of the Two Worlds ".

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Law enforcement in Italy. Foreign relations of Italy. Water supply and sanitation in Italy. Science and technology in Italy.

Languages of Italy , Italian language , and Regional Italian. Secondary or non-official language. Italy is home to many of the world's largest, oldest and opulent churches.

Florence Cathedral , which has the biggest brick dome in the world; [] [] St. Peter's Basilica , the largest church of Christendom ; [] Milan Cathedral , the largest Italian church and the third largest in the world; [] and St Mark's Basilica , one of the best known examples of Italo- Byzantine architecture [].

Religion in Italy [2] Catholicism. The city of Venice , built on islands. Theatre of ancient Rome. Italian fashion and Italian design.

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achtelfinale italien -

Juni waren die drei Jahre noch nicht voll gewesen. Campionato Mondiale Di Calcio. Gelbe Karte für Sergio Busquets Spanien. Italien konnte wie Uruguay vier Jahre zuvor den Heimvorteil nutzen und gewann seinen ersten Weltmeistertitel im entscheidenden Spiel gegen die Tschechoslowakei. Die Spanier mussten gegen das einzige ernstzunehmende Team aus Südamerika, Brasilien antreten. Ungarn musste gegen Ägypten antreten, welche als schwächstes Team des Turniers eingeschätzt wurden. Erst ja, dann nein: Ungarn musste gegen Ägypten antreten, welche als schwächstes Team des Turniers eingeschätzt wurden. In der zweiten Halbzeit konnten die Tschechoslowaken das Spiel allerdings noch drehen und kamen somit eine Runde weiter. Der Ball war ganz woanders..

Italien achtelfinale -

Juli für Argentinien gegen Paraguay gespielt. Stand nach dieser immer noch kein Sieger fest, gab es einen Tag später ein Wiederholungsspiel. Zwischen beiden Teams bestand ein deutlicher Klassenunterschied, der sich auch im Endergebnis ausdrückte. Dies widerspricht freilich zeitgenössischen Zeitungsartikeln anwesender Reporter. Pauli , Premiere League , "Heuchler" wie z. Zitat von socceralex t. Auch Argentinien setzte bei seinem Turnierauftritt im Achtelfinale einen nicht spielberechtigten Spieler ein, und zwar den Spieler Constantino Urbieto-Sosa im Achtelfinalspiel gegen Schweden am Das Ostseestadion ist auf dem Weg zur Festung. Er hätte bei seinem Einsatz im Viertelfinal-Wiederholungsspiel gegen Spanien seit dem Das Achtelfinale der WM steht: Gelbe Karte für David Silva Spanien. Diese Regel wurde von mehreren Mannschaften verletzt. Im Viertelfinale ist Schluss. Die Stadien befanden sich teilweise bereits in der Bauphase. Stadio Municipale Benito Mussolini. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt hatte er zwar seit drei Jahren kein Länderspiel mehr für ein anderes Land bestritten, aber er betrat erst am Als Zweiter geht es dann gegen einen [ Andreas Gabalier ist auch im Norden dahoam. Die Spanier hatten gegen Ende der Partie drei verletzte Spieler — Auswechslungen waren nicht gestattet. Minute 22 Nolito

There are 27 pronouns, grouped in clitic and tonic pronouns. Personal pronouns are separated into three groups: Second person subject pronouns have both a polite and a familiar form.

These two different types of address are very important in Italian social distinctions. All object pronouns have two forms: Unstressed object pronouns are much more frequently used, and come before the verb Lo vedo.

Stressed object pronouns come after the verb, and are used when emphasis is required, for contrast, or to avoid ambiguity Vedo lui, ma non lei.

Aside from personal pronouns, Italian also has demonstrative, interrogative, possessive, and relative pronouns. There are two types of demonstrative pronouns: Demonstratives in Italian are repeated before each noun, unlike in English.

There are three regular sets of verbal conjugations , and various verbs are irregularly conjugated. Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a past participle.

This rule is not absolute, and some exceptions do exist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Italiano disambiguation. This article is about the standardized Italian language.

For other Italian languages originating or spoken in Italy, see Languages of Italy. Former official language, now secondary. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Dante Alighieri top and Petrarch bottom were influential in establishing their Tuscan dialect as the most prominent literary language in all of Italy in the Late Middle Ages.

Geographical distribution of Italian speakers. Italy portal Switzerland portal Vatican City portal Language portal. Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 8 December Italiano LinguaDue in Italian.

Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 19 February Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Retrieved 25 April Pei suggests that this statistical method be extended not only to all other phonological but also to all morphological and syntactical, phenomena.

A statistical method attempting to evaluate the evidence quantitatively was developed in order to provide not only a classification but at the same time a measure of the divergence among the languages.

The earliest attempt was made in by Mario Pei — , who measured the divergence of seven modern Romance languages from Classical Latin, taking as his criterion the evolution of stressed vowels.

Pei's results do not show the degree of contemporary divergence among the languages from each other but only the divergence of each one from Classical Latin.

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Italy's government reaches deal on trial time constraints ROME Italy's ruling coalition reached a deal on Thursday over removing time constraints on the prosecution of numerous crimes, including corruption, defusing a row that had threatened the stability of the government.

World , Nov 07 Italy says will help Pakistani woman in blasphemy case leave her country ROME Italy said on Tuesday it will help a Pakistani Christian woman leave her country because her life is in danger following charges of blasphemy against Islam that put her on death row for eight years.

World , Nov 06 People , Entertainment , Nov 05 Italian storms wipe out two families in Sicily as death toll rises MILAN Two families were killed in the same house in Sicily when the torrential rains and high winds lashing Italy caused a river to burst its banks, drowning the nine people inside.

Video World , Environment Nov 04

Italien Achtelfinale Video

Unsere Fußball-Experten tippen das Achtelfinale der EM: Italien baut den Limes wieder auf

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